Welcome to Directorate of Arecanut and Spices Development
Soil and climate
    Cinnamon is a hardy plant and tolerates a wide range of soil and climatic conditions.  In the West Coast of India, the tree is grown on laterite and sandy patches with poor nutrient status.  It comes up well from  sea level up to an elevation of about 1,000 m.  Since it is mostly raised as a rainfed crop, an annual rainfall of 200-250 cm is ideal.


    Two high yielding, high quality Cinnamon varieties released from IISR are suitable for cultivation in various regions of India.  The varieties Navashree and Nithyashree have an yield potential of 56 and 54 kg dry quills/hectare per year respectively, in the initial years, when one seedling or cutting is planted in a hill.  Navashree yields 2.7 % bark oil, 73 % Cinnamaldehyde in bark, 8 % bark oleoresin, 2.8 % leaf oil and 62 % leaf eugenol.  Nithyashree yields 2.7 % bark oil, 58 % Cinnamaldehyde in bark, 10 % bark Oleoresin, 3 % leaf oil and 78 % leaf eugenol.


    Propagation of Cinnamon is by rooted cuttings, air layerings and seedlings.


    Semi hardwood cuttings of about 10 cm length with 2 leaves are taken and dipped in IBA 2000 ppm or in a rooting hormon  (Keradix-B) and planted either in polythene bags filled with sand or a mixture of sand and coir dust(1:1) or in sand beds raised in a shaded place.  The cuttings in polythene bags must also be kept in a shaded place or in a nursery.  The cuttings are to be watered regularly 2-3 times a day to maintain adequate moisture and to prevent wilting.  The cuttings root in 45-60 days.  The well rooted cuttings can be transplanted to polythene bags filled with potting mixture and maintained in a shaded place and watered regularly.

Air layering

    Air layering of Cinnamon is done on semi hardwood shoots.  A ring of bark is removed from the semi hardwood portion of the shoot and a rooting hormone(IBA 2000 ppm or IAA 2000 ppm) is applied on the portion where the bark has been removed.  Moist coir dust or coir husk is placed around the region where the hormone has been applied and is secured in position by wrapping with a polythene sheet of 20 cm length.  This would also avoid moisture loss.  Rooting takes place in 40-60 days.  The well rooted air layers are separated from the mother plant and bagged in polythene bags filled with potting mixture and kept in a shaded place or nursery by watering the plants twice daily.  The rooted cuttings and layers can be planted in the main field with the onset of rains.

Cinnamon can also be propagated through seeds; however, in such cases variability is observed among the seedlings.  Under West Coast conditions, Cinnamon flowers in January and the fruits ripen during June-August.  The fully ripened fruits are either picked from the tree or the fallen ones are collected from the ground.  The seeds are removed from the fruits, washed free of pulp, and sown without much delay as the seeds have a low viability.  The seeds are sown in sand beds or polythene bags containing a mixture of sand, soil and well rotten cattle manure (3:3:1).  The seeds start to germinate within 15-20 days.  Frequent irrigation has to be provided for maintaining adequate moisture.  The seedlings require artificial shading till they are about 6 months old.