Welcome to Directorate of Arecanut and Spices Development
Climate and soil
    Turmeric can be grown in diverse tropical conditions from sea level to 1500 m above sea level, at a temperature range of 20-30ºC with an annual rainfall of 1500 mm or more, under rainfed or irrigated conditions.  Though it can be grown on different types of soils, it thrives best in well-drained sandy or clay loam soils.

    A number of cultivars are available in the country and are known mostly by the name of locality where they are cultivated.  Some of the popular cultivars are Duggirala, Tekkurpet, Sugandham, Amalapuram, Erode local, Alleppey, Moovattupuzha and Lakadong.  The improved varieties of Turmeric and their salient features are given in Table 1.

Preparation of land
    The land is prepared with the receipt of early monsoon showers.  The soil is brought to a fine tilth by giving about four deep ploughings.  Hydrated lime @ 400 kg/ha has to be applied for laterite soils and thoroughly ploughed.  Immediately with the receipt of pre-monsoon showers, beds of 1.0-1.5 m width, 15 cm height and of convenient length are prepared with spacing of 50 cm between beds.  Planting is also done by forming ridges and furrows.

    In Kerala and other West Coast areas where the rainfall begins early, the crop can be planted during April-May with the receipt of pre-monsoon showers.

Seed material
    Whole or split mother rhizomes are used for planting and well developed healthy and disease free rhizomes are to be selected.  Small pits are made with a hand hoe in the beds in rows with a spacing of 25 cm x 30 cm and covered with soil or dry powdered cattle manure.  The optimum spacing in furrows and ridges is between 45-60 cm between the rows and 25 cm between the plants.  A seed rate of 2,500 kg of rhizomes is required for planting one hectare of Turmeric.

The less availability of quality planting material and its high cost are main constrains in the production of Turmeric. A transplanting technique in Turmeric by using single bud sprouts (about 5 g) has been standardized to produce good quality planting material with reduced cost. The yield level of turmeric transplants is on-par with conventional planting system. The technique involves raising transplants from single sprout seed rhizomes in the pro-tray and planted in the field after 28-30 days. The advantages of this technology are production of healthy planting materials and reduction in seed rhizome quantity and eventually reduced cost on seeds.

Transplanting technology
•    Curing of seed rhizomes (1-1½ months)
•    2 Seed rhizome treatment- After curing, the rhizomes are treated with fungicides (Carbendazim @ 2 g/l + Monocrotophos @ 2 ml/l) up to 10 minutes to control the rhizome rot and scales.
•    Buds from finger rhizome Rhizomes are cut into small pieces with single bud
•    Inducing sprouting of rhizome bud (4 days) - Placing of single bud rhizome pieces on palm mat and covering with coco peat  (0.5% humic acid treated)
•    Collection of single bud rhizomes
•    Filling Cocopeat (100g) + Pseudomonas fluorescens (5g) in pro trays
•    Planting of single bud rhizome in pro trays
•     Protection of single bud rhizome with polythene sheet
•    Sprouting of turmeric single bud rhizome
•    Turmeric plants ready for transplanting to the main field after 28-30 days
•    Transplants the turmeric plant in broad bed system or ridges & furrow system